Covid-19 Vaccines Side Effects

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Indonesia continues to fight against the Covid-19 pandemic in several ways, one of them is to accelerate the vaccination program for stages one, two, and booster vaccines. There are 5 types of vaccines that have received emergency use authorization (EUA) as booster vaccines, namely Sinovac or Coronavac PT Bio Farma, Comirnaty by Pfizer, AstraZeneca or Vaxzevria and Kconecavac, Moderna, and Zifivax.

The Food and Drug Supervisory Agency (BPOM) has officially approved the five Covid-19 vaccines as booster vaccines or homologous continued doses (booster vaccines are the same as primary vaccines) and heterologous (booster vaccines are different from primary vaccines).

Then, what about the side effects of the vaccine?

Sinovac Vaccine from Bio Farma

Coronavac or Sinovac vaccine from Bio Farma is the first vaccine that is permitted as a booster vaccine or homologous follow-up vaccine given at least 1 dose after 6 months of the primary vaccine complete dose of Coronavac or Sinovac for ages 18 years and over.

BPOM said that Sinovac as a booster vaccine can increase neutralizing antibody titers up to 21-35 times after 28 days of giving a booster or a follow-up dose.

The side effects of the booster vaccine from Bio Farma are:
1. Causes a local reaction or pain at the injection site
2. The severity of the side effects are grades one and two

Pfizer Vaccines

The Comirnaty vaccine from Pfizer as a booster vaccine or a homologous follow-up dose can be given at least 1 dose after 6 months of the complete Pfizer primary vaccine for ages 18 years and over.

This vaccine has a neutralizing antibody titer value after one month of booster administration 3.29 times.

The side effects that may arise after the injection of a booster dose of this vaccine are:
1. Pain at the injection site
2. Muscle ache
3. Joint pain
4. Fever

AstraZeneca Vaccine

The AstraZeneca vaccine (Vaxzevria and Kconecavac) is a vaccine that has been approved as a homologous booster vaccine and is given in 1 dose after 6 months from the primary complete dose of AstraZeneca vaccination for ages 18 years and over.

AstraZeneca vaccine as a booster vaccine has increased the average value of IgG antibody titer from 1792 (before injection of booster vaccine dose) to 3746.

The possible side effects of the AstraZeneca booster vaccine are:
1. Pain at the injection site.
2. Redness.
3. Itch.
4. There is swelling.
5. Headache.
6. Chills or fever.
7. Nauseous.
8. Fatigue.

Moderna Vaccine

Moderna vaccine as a homologous and heterologous booster vaccine with AstraZeneca, Pfizer, or Jenssen primary vaccines can be given in half doses (half dose) for ages 18 years and over given 6 months after primary vaccination
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Moderna vaccine as a booster vaccine gave an increase in the immune response of neutralizing antibodies by 12.99 times after giving the homologous booster vaccine.

The side effects of the Moderna booster vaccine that can occur are:
1. Weakness.
2. Headache.
3. Chills or fever.
4. Nauseous.

Zifivax Vaccine

The Zifivax vaccine is permitted as a full-dose heterologous booster vaccine for those aged 18 years and over and given at least 6 months after receiving the full-dose primary vaccine from Sinovac or Sinopharm.

The Zifivax vaccine has a neutralizing antibody titer level of more than 30 times for those who have received the primary dose of Sinovac or Sinopharm.

Side effects that can occur after giving the Zifivax booster vaccine are:
Pain at the injection site
1. Muscle pain or myalgia
2. Headache
3. Feeling tired
4. Fever
5. Nauseous
6. Diarrhea (severity grades one and two)
7. Nausea

Fortunately, the results of BPOM’s evaluation of the safety aspects of the five booster vaccines or the third dose above show that the frequency, type, and severity of adverse events or adverse events reported after the booster dose are generally mild and moderate.